The main and main advantage of a laptop is its mobility and autonomy. The small size and weight of the device allows you to take it with you and use it anywhere, and rechargeable batteries provide several hours of operation without external power sources. It is these qualities that create another advantage for a laptop over a PC – the ability to quickly process information and transfer it to the Internet from anywhere. But this is where the superiority of laptops over personal computers ends. Low power, the complexity of the upgrade and the high cost of repairs do not yet allow them to become truly universal machines.
Types of laptops
All laptops are divided into three main types: desktop, convertible, and ultrabook. The first are small-sized PC analogs, heavy and often easily upgradeable. Most often they are distinguished by a large screen and versatility – they are capable of performing a wide range of tasks.
Transformers are a mixture of laptop and tablet. Most often these are low-power devices with a touch screen, designed, by and large, to perform simple office tasks and surf the Internet.
Ultrabooks are now considered the pinnacle of laptop evolution. They are thin and light, often with decent fillings. True, now only the most expensive ultrabooks can catch up with the price-to-performance ratio of their predecessors, laptops, but their reduction in price is only a matter of time.
Dimensions, screen diagonal, weight
Nowadays, you rarely find a laptop heavier than 2.5 kilograms, and ultrabooks by their weight barely exceed a kilogram at all. These indicators are achieved by improving and minimizing components, which also affects their thickness – the thinnest barely reach 1.5 cm.
But the length and width of laptops depend on the screen diagonal. Nowadays, the most common models are 13-14 inches (33-35 centimeters). There are many models with 15-inch screens, but they are less common among transformers and ultrabooks.
HDDs are still the most popular storage devices in laptops, but they are gradually being replaced by faster and more expensive, albeit less capacious, SSDs.
In transformers and ultrabooks, they are increasingly using built-in solid-state drives. And in order to expand the amount of accumulated information, almost all laptops are equipped with slots for memory cards, or an interface for connecting an external drive.
Operating system and applications
There are three main operating systems most commonly used on laptops: Windows, Linux, and Android. Moreover, if the former is used practically on any type of device, then Linux is more often found on ultrabooks, and Android – on transformers.
Of course, you can ask a specialist, or install it on laptops and other operating systems yourself, but this will be a waste of nerves and money. But applications on laptops work absolutely everything that the operating system and the technical capabilities of the device allow to support.
Basically, modern laptops use a lithium-ion type of rechargeable batteries. They are lighter and more compact, moreover, high-performance, although they function only at positive temperatures.
Nickel cadmium batteries can work in any environment and are cheaper. However, due to their heavy weight, they are rarely used in laptops. Lithium polymer batteries are a fairly new invention. They are small and can be of any shape. But so far, due to the high cost and low performance, they are more often used in small gadgets than in laptops.
Laptops use a wide variety of processors with almost unlimited cores and clock speeds. The only exceptions are those “computer hearts” that require powerful cooling – there is simply no place for them in laptops.
However, lovers of powerful processors have now come to the rescue of a passive cooling model Intel Core i7-8750H with overclocking capability up to 4.1 GHz. And although, of course, these are far from prohibitive capabilities of processors, for notebooks such a “heart” is a great progress.
If desktop laptops have discrete graphics cards – not uncommon, then integrated ones prevail in ultrabooks and transformers. The main drawback of the latter is their low power, which limits the use of some applications and games. But their compactness can significantly reduce the weight and volume of devices.
However, there are quite good examples among the built-in video cards. The Intel HD Graphics 620 video core produces fairly good performance and can be used in not too demanding games and graphics editors.
Laptops also do not shine with the richness of RAM, but for the latest models, the volume of 32 GB has become no longer a fairy tale, but a dream come true.
Most laptops still use the DDR3 type of “RAM”, but more and more models with DDR4 with a frequency of 2400 MHz, or DDRL – a new generation of random access memory – appear.